Policies Against Human Rights.
Sudan: a New Face of Dictatorship, New Model of Violations
Following the failure of the attempt of bombing the World Trade Center in
New York in 1993, and after the failed attempt of assassination of the
Egyptian President, Hosny Mubarak in Ethiopia 1996, the fever of
exploitation of oil resources in the Sudan within the policy of
privatization of social, economic, cultural and political powers, resulted
in the creation of the recent two factions within the regime of the
National Islamic Front which came to power through the military coup of
these two factions is guided by the Iranian model, and the other is
following the Pakistani model of Theocratic democracy, which, in a way, is
better than the model established in Afghanistan by the Talibans.
the political resistance of the National Democratic Alliance and the Sudan
Peoples Liberation Army/Movement, the Islamic National Front military
regime promulgated a constitution, elected a president, local councils and
established a constitutional court and a new federation of trade unions.
official Arabic Language version of the constitution and laws differs
completely from the English text which is meant to address the
international community in order to legalize the human rights abuses and
cover the actual practices of the security forces of the regime.
Civil and Political Rights :
Laws and Practice
The Political Theocratization is a major threat facing the human rights
the articles of the Constitution, nothing can stop any Fatwa against
citizens who refuse the idea of an Islamic State or the so called ďIslamic
Guidance for State and SocietyĒ.
word ďIslamĒ is in fact, usually, misused contrary to its original meaning
as a (positive abstract from all kind of the worldly/land-lordship).
History of misusing Islam is dating back to 1500 years as a cover for
feudalism, and recently as cover for Free market capitalism, and is linked
to the socio-economic factors, rather than the Islamic religion itself.
use of Islam against communism during the cold war, which was later
integrated with the New World Order, lead to a situation of Islamo-phobia
and Western-phobia, and made the Muslim countries a diehard dictatorships
aggressing the progressive and enlightened elites of these countries.
the end of February 2003, an official conference on Dar-Fur/Western Sudan
held by the Government of Sudan and the Military Governor of Dar-Fur
Region came to the conclusion that the Western Sudan region of Dar-Fur is
suffering from Governmental tribal apartheid and racial discrimination
policies, together with social and economic exploitations and
Dictatorship and Racial/Tribal Discrimination linked to the centralization
of power in Khartoum, and the inequitable distribution of the national
income, together with Government of Sudan establishing and supporting
Tribal Militia are one of the main sources of the conflict in Darfur,
which was accentuated by the government policy of arming the militias to
wage war against non-Arabs of African origin. (Dar-Furís
Events London 2002).
National Security Law; the Penal Code, the Declaration of State of
Emergency and Public Order Laws, the Registration of Parties, Unions,
Press and Associations, play a major rule in the violations of Human
Rights in Sudan.
Hundreds of students, political and civil society activists, were arrested
without charge or trial; or faced trials without any sort of legal aid; in
addition to the simplicity in issuing long imprisonment sentences, and
death penalties (more
than 90 Death penalties by one judgment in less than one hour trial
without lawyers, at the end of 2002).
Government security forces fired at students and demonstrators more than
ten times during 2002. In one of
these actions against Academics and students riots in May 17. 2002, more
than 357 students were
injured in Al-Nilein University in Khartoum after Police shot at students
celebrating the New Sudan Manifesto.
Recently on the 17th, 22nd and the 23rd of March 2003, 4
university students were killed because of Police direct shooting on their
heads and chests in Al-Duwiam City and in Khartoum.
(SHRO Press Release23-3-03).
cases of shooting at students, not a single security agent faced justice,
whereas, on the contrary the students faced torture in the local detention
Freedom of Expression is curtailed by the continuous arrest of writers and
editors, usually, without (charge), for extended periods of detention and
last 12 months, six issues of different newspapers were confiscated; and
publishing centers were closed-down many times.
Constitution, Penal Law, National Security Act, Declaration of State of
Emergency, Local Public Order laws and laws of Registrations, limited
Public Freedoms and the Right of Organization.
2-Violations of Social and Economic Rights in Sudan
Privatization of Powers, Corruption, Marginlization & Exploitation and
abusing of Unionsí Rights linked with National and International Terror:
and Privatization are major factors in the President-Party-Stateís social
Exploiting Oil fields in Southern Sudan is linked to the civil war; Crimes
against humanity, bombing civilians, genocide and war crimes, yet the
Government of Sudan didnít take any step to investigate any part of these
public charges against it; not to mention the drastic results of the
governmental committee for investigation slavery.
the end of February 2003, an official conference on Darfur region reached
the conclusion that the western Sudan region of Darfur is suffering from
governmental tribal apartheid and racial discrimination policies, together
with social and economic exploitation and marginalisation.
Dictatorship and racial/tribal discrimination linked to the centralization
of power in Khartoum, and the inequitable distribution of the national
wealth, together with government of Sudan establishing and supporting
tribal militia are one of the main sources of the conflict in Darfur
bearing in mind that the government policy of arming the Arab militias to
wage war against non-Arabs of African origin. (Dar-Furís
Events, London 2002)
the result of Sudanís government policy, hundreds of villages were burned,
thousands were killed, 100,000 citizens forced to be displaced. The
economic resources were drastically squandered. The outcome of the recent
military policy is the establishment of the newly declared Sudan
Liberation Movement and Sudan Liberation Army, created to
struggle for a: ďUnited democratic Sudan based on equality, restructuring
and devolution of power, development, culture and political pluralism and
material prosperity for all Sudanese. This means a new wave of civil war
in Dar-Fur and SudanĒ.
(Press Release/Commentary by
SLM/SLA posted on March.14, 2003)
Recently, Sudanese Air Forces bombed civilianís areas in the region.
Northern, Eastern, Western and Southern Sudan suffer from strong policy of
marginlisation in addition to civil and military regimesí oppression,
resulting on 2 millions deaths and 4millions displaced locally. Moreover,
another 4 millions Sudanese immigrated outside Sudan.
IGADís Machakos peace negotiation between the Government of Sudan and
Sudanís Peoples Liberation Movement, in all views, will help in the
realization of participation in power and wealth between the two sides,
while the other socio-political part of Sudanís Capital-Countrysideís
conflict will still be in the wait to be addressed.
rights and freedoms of Unions and Associations are still in the hands of
the governmental Unionsí Registration Officer and the Associationsí
Security forces play a cardinal rule in establishing and disbanding
the Unions and Associations, and in the mean time the unions with major
membership such as the farmers, workers and professionals are powerless in
the state's economic policies.
final outcome of this Anti-Unions policy, more than 90% of Sudanís
population is (living) under Poverty Line, according to the official
statistics of the late nineties.
Strikes, under State of Emergency, can lead strikers to death penalties,
as was the case of the Doctors strike in the early nineties.
Women are suffering in double sense as women and as workers, from the
who constitute 70% of the work force in the field of Education and Health
services, with similar percentage in the office-work, does not get the
same income as their male beers who perform the same type of work.
Moreover, under Islamic-Patriarchal rule as the famous local Public Order,
the Governors of the regions or the provinces can order the cancellation
of the women right to work, in the same manner as happened in the year
2000 in capital Khartoum.
an official dress in the streets and places of work, force women to bear
the veil, is a basic element in framing criminal charges against the
majority of the women lashed in the Sudan.
women right for education is retreating beyond the poverty line due to the
privatization of public education. Not to mention the marginalized areas
where women live under poverty in addition to bombardment.
Personal and family rights are flagrantly abused in peace camps in the
Nuba Mountains region, where the governmentís Islamic relief agencies and
the Popular Defense Force militia of Arab tribes, are stripping Nuba
children and adults from their culture and imposing on them the
Nuba area the people suffer from marginlization in some part of it, from
exploitation on other part, in addition to the affects of the civil war.
As a result of these Crimes
against humanity, hundreds thousands of Nuba were forced
to change their own culture to the official Arabic-Islamic culture.
State of Emergency and Public Order laws cancel the basic rights of
privacy and personal life. Moreover, the Popular Police Forces is
monitoring wedding parties and home drinks, not to mention the streets
womenís dress code.
Free Market and Privatization policies play a major rule in strengthening
the powers of the Islamic banks party-regime and revive the old-economic
democracy system through the mechanisms of banks' profits and
capitalization, based on hard exploitation and marginlization of the work
forces at the same time.
new upper-class controls the state apparatus, institutions, corporations,
companies, media and military forces. As a result of this absolute power,
Free market and Privatization policies resurges as a major machine of
corruption and money laundering rule in an Islamically proclaimed state,
thus affecting the human rights situation in Sudan
Islamisation used to design wealth and power for few people, making
themselves new Lords or new agents of God on earth. Yet, in order to
protect their interests, and to conform with their new dress they are
facilitating Intelligence, Corruption and State-Terror
inside and outside Sudan.
facts of daily life gives a clear view on the relationship between the
interests of free market, corruption and terror, and the violations of
Human Rights, nationally and internationally; and help in understanding
the nature of the mix red blood, dark blue oil and war cross and stars.
rights for work, fair-income, education and health are affected badly by
World Bankís policies that build-up the evil triangle of poverty, sickness
and illiteracy by centralizing wealth and power, distributing exploitation
& marginalization and wars and terror.
Violations against Cultural Rights and Freedoms in Sudan:
War Against Human Rights,
Peace and Equality Cultures in Sudanís Clash of Civilizations
Popular Defense Forceís brain washing camps, through out the Sudan, are
official bases of war against Human Rights, Peace and Social Justices, and
against the cultures of pluralism known in the Sudan. Millions of
youngsters are forced to join these camps, from1990 till now.
war against civic life and customs and Sudanese pluralism cultures is a
main target of the theocratic-militarismís war and terror, in a hard line
Freedom of Expression was hardly hit in the year 2002 by Government of
Sudan when it confiscated issues of several (authorized) newspapers more
than 20 times.
of intellectuals, writers, editors, usually, arrested without (charges) in
some times, but few of them faced trial after long time of detention and
pressure. In the last 12 months, the newspapers issues confiscated count
for more than ten times. Tens of Journalists faced savage detention and
high fines and some news papers faced orders to shut down, publishers are
faced with corruption of government advertisements contracts.
classical governmental media control is diametrically opposite to the idea
Sudanís clash of civilizations the government media reproduced all terms
of the quiet and soft apartheid against a non-Muslims and non-Arabic
cultures, false propaganda about the society and state, waging a war of
dislike against all non-Islamist-formations in a pluralistic Sudan.
Falsehood and propagating of hatred is an intelligence base of media war
against right for information.
Abd-Al-Karim Mirghani Cultural Center was shut-down twice; universities
and cultural groups' events and symposiums are usually cancelled; plays
and songs were banned without any explanation, some singers and coral
groups were put under observation because of their views; singers were
slashed; writers must not oppose the Islamic guidance of the State
Freedoms of religion and believes of Muslims face peril by observation.
the Republican- brotherhood and some other members of Islamic-Sophism
sects as Khatmia faced State oppression, but for Christians the freedom of
religions faced more risks as new Churches in the new living-hood areas
were forced to shut-down. Condition to get licenses to build a Church is
restricted more than conditions to build-up Mosques, Biblical activities,
facing violence or suppression conflagration.
God-father of this regime, Dr. Hassan Al-Turabi is still under house
arrest for more than two years without charge or trial. His last two books
about Islam-State relationship were not allowed to be published in Sudan.
In conclusion, no public way
to God or to human sense is out of the State control.
naked reality of the so called openness in Sudan is just a New Order for
violations of basic Human Rights. Treating the other religions and
economical interests in the Middle-East, Horn of Africa, Great African
Lakes, Central and West Africa by Geo-Religion-Capital concepts will drive
the whole region into a scene of grave violation of human rights, mixing
the policies of oil and blood nationally and internationally.